Digital Signal Processing

Development of Algorithms for Target Motion Analysis.

The problem of target tracking or target motion analysis (TMA) in active sonar refers to the estimation of the range, azimuth, bearing, Doppler etc., while in passive sonar, it refers to the measurement of noise corrupted range and bearing, obtained as an outcome of the processing the received noise data waveforms emanating from the noisy targets. The algorithm for target motion analysis will furnish the range, course, and speed of the target using the frequency and bearing estimates furnished by the passive sonar system. The target motion analysis can be carried out by two techniques viz. Bearing only TMA and frequency TMA.

The proposed software is accessed with the help of a graphical user interface, which will have a bearing time window, as well as a frequency time window. The parameters are estimated and appropriate correction terms deemed fit will be computed and the corrected range, speed and course of the target will be generated with the help of the proposed software.

Implementation of an Optimized GSM Audio Authentication System using Asymmetric Key Cryptography

The research will be focused on developing a digital authentication mechanism which could be embedded into a GSM phone which will automatically authenticate a user while making a normal voice call for financial transactions. This is achieved by the transmission of authentication details and other supplementary data using Public-key cryptography, where the communication medium would be audio channel used for voice itself. The proposed system needs to be highly secure and accurate while not introducing additional overheads into the communication channel. Thus the system should be capable of automatically identifying calls that require security and enable the authentication mechanism, while it should be capable of making conventional voice calls under normal scenario.

Since modification of software or technology used for public voice switching is practically impossible due to the wide spread global distribution of communication network, the attempts should merge digital data over voice channel when required, without noticeable degradation in the voice quality, thus ensuring the system to work transparently over the existing network (without even requiring 3G services).

Crystal Growth Rate Analysis using Optical Image Processing

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an ordered pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. In addition to their microscopic structure, large crystals are usually identifiable by their macroscopic geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations.

The scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement. (Quasicrystals are an exception, see below.) A crystal structure (an arrangement of atoms in a crystal) is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement. The unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal.

Crystallization is a complex and extensively-studied field, because depending on the conditions, a single fluid can solidify into many different possible forms. It can form a single crystal, perhaps with various possible phases, stoichiometries, impurities, defects, and habits. Or, it can form a polycrystal, with various possibilities for the size, arrangement, orientation, and phase of its grains. The final form of the solid is determined by the conditions under which the fluid is being solidified, such as the chemistry of the fluid, the ambient pressure, the temperature, and the speed with which all these parameters are changing.

High Performance Computing Cluster with Low Power System on Chip Architectures

A distributed system is a network of autonomous computers that communicate with each other in order to achieve a goal. The computers in a distributed system are independent and do not physically share memory or processors. They communicate with each other using messages, pieces of information transferred from one computer to another over a network. Messages can communicate many things: computers can tell other computers to execute a procedures with particular arguments, they can send and receive packets of data, or send signals that tell other computers to behave a certain way. In distributed systems, components communicate with each other using message passing. A message has three essential parts: the sender, the recipient, and the content. The sender needs to be specified so that the recipient knows which component sent the message, and where to send replies. The recipient needs to be specified so that any computers who are helping send the message know where to direct it. The content of the message is the most variable. Depending on the function of the overall system, the content can be a piece of data, a signal, or instructions for the remote computer to evaluate a function with some arguments. This notion of message passing is closely related to the message passing technique, in which dispatch functions or dictionaries responded to string-valued messages. Within a program, the sender and receiver are identified by the rules of evaluation. In a distributed system, messages may need to be sent over a network, and may need to hold many different kinds of signals as 'data', so they are not always encoded as strings. In both cases, however, messages serve the same function. Different components (dispatch functions or computers) exchange them in order to achieve a goal that requires coordinating multiple modular components. The cluster could provide faster research results and greater performance, with low power consumption and less amount of space.